Key M-PAC References

Rhodes, R.E., La, H., Quinlan, A. & Grant, S. (2021). Enacting physical activity intention: A multi-process action control approach. In C. Englert & I. Taylor (Eds.), Motivation and Self-Regulation in Sport and Exercise (pp. 8-20). New York: Taylor & Francis.

Rhodes, R.E. (2017). The evolving understanding of physical activity behavior: A multi-process action control approach. In A. J. Elliot (Ed),  Advances in Motivation Science. (pp. 171-205).

Rhodes, R.E. & de Bruijn, G.J. (2013). What predicts intention-behavior discordance? A review of the action control framework. Exercise and Sports Sciences Reviews, 41(4), 201-207.

Rhodes, R.E., & Yao, C., (2015). Models accounting for intention-behavior discordance in the physical activity domain:  A user’s guide, content overview, and review of current evidence. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 12(9), 1-14.

Selected Tests of M-PAC

Rhodes, R.E., Beauchamp, M.R., Quinlan, A., Symons Downs, D., Warburton, D.E.R., & Blanchard, C.M. (2021). Predicting the physical activity of new parents who participated in a physical activity intervention. Social Science & Medicine, 284, 114221.

Grant, S., Lithopoulos, A., & Rhodes, R.E. (2021). Understanding action control of physical activity among mothers with young children. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, Online First, 1- 17.

Bassett-Gunter, R.L., Tanna, S., Arbour-Nicitopoulos, K.A., Rhodes, R.E., & Leo, J. (2020). Understanding the role of parents in supporting physical activity among children and youth with disabilities; A behavior change theory perspective. European Journal of Adapted Physical Activity. 13(11), 1-16.

Rhodes, R.E., Quinlan, A., Naylor, P.J., Warburton, D.E.R., & Blanchard, C.M. (2020). Predicting personal physical activity of parents during participation in a family intervention targeting their children. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 43, 209-224.

Liu, S., Husband, C., La, H., Juba, M., Loucks, R., Harrison, A., & Rhodes, R.E. (2019). Development of a self-guided web-based intervention to promote physical activity using the Multi-process Action Control Framework. Internet Interventions 15, 35-42.

Rhodes, R.E., Berry, T., Faulkner, G., Latimer-Cheung, A.E., O’Reilly, N., Tremblay, M.S, Vanderloo, L., & Spence, J.C. (2019). Application of the Multi-Process Action Control framework to understand parental support of child and youth physical activity, sleep, and screen time behaviors. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, 11(2), 223-239.

Kaushal, N., Rhodes, R. E., Spence, J. C., & Meldrum, J. T. (2017). Increasing physical activity through principles of habit formation in new gym members: A randomized controlled trial. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 51(4), 578-586.

Rhodes, R. E., & Lim, C. (2016). Understanding action control of daily walking behavior among dog owners: A community survey. BMC Public Health, 16, 1165-1174.

Rhodes, R. E., Spence, J. C., Berry, T., Deshpande, S., Faulkner, G., Latimer-Cheung, A., . . . Tremblay, M. (2016). Understanding Action Control of Parent Support Behavior for Child Physical Activity. Health Psychology, 35, 131-140.

Tanna, S. Arbour-Nicitopoulos, K. P., Rhodes, R. E., & Bassett-Gunter, R. L. (2017). A pilot study exploring the use of a telephone-assisted planning intervention to promote parental support for physical activity among children and youth with disabilities. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 32, 25-33.

Vallerand, J., Rhodes, R.E., Walker, G.J., Courneya, K.S., (2016). Understanding strength exercise intentions and behavior in hematologic cancer survivors: An analysis of the intention-behavior gap. Journal of Cancer Survivorship, 10(6), 945-955.

The Intention-Behaviour Gap

Rhodes, R.E., Cox, A., & Sayar, R. (2021). What predicts the physical activity intention-behavior gap? A systematic review. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, Available Online, 1-20.

Rhodes, R. E., & de Bruijn, G. J. (2013). How big is the physical activity intention-behaviour gap? A meta-analysis using the action control framework. British Journal of Health Psychology, 18, 296-309.

Rhodes, R. E., & Dickau, L. (2012). Meta-analysis of experimental evidence for the intention-behavior relationship in the physical activity domain. Health Psychology, 31(6), 724-727.

Instrumental Outcome Expectations and Affective Judgments

Connell Bohlen, L., Emerson, J., Rhodes, R.E., & Williams, D.M. (in press). A systematic review and meta-analysis of the outcome expectancy construct in physical activity research. Annals of Behavioral Medicine.

McEachan, R., Taylor, N., Harrison, R., Lawton, R., Gardner, P., & Conner, M. (2016). Meta-analysis of the reasoned action approach (RAA) to understanding health behaviors. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 50, 592-612.

Nasuti, G., & Rhodes, R. E. (2013). Affective judgment and physical activity in youth: A review and meta-analysis. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 45(3), 357-376.

Rhodes, R. E., Fiala, B., & Conner, M. (2009). Affective judgments and physical activity: A review and meta-analysis. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 38, 180-204.

Rhodes, R.E., Gray, S.M., & Husband, C. (2019). Experimental manipulation of affective judgments about physical activity: A systematic review and meta-analysis of adults. Health Psychology Review, 13(1), 18-34.

Perceived Capability and Opportunity

Michie, S., van Stralen, M. M., & West, R. (2011). The Behaviour Change Wheel: A new method for characterising and designing behaviour change interventions. Implement Science, 6, 42.

Rhodes, R. E., Blanchard, C. M., & Matheson, D. H. (2006). A multi-component model of the theory of planned behavior. British Journal of Health Psychology, 11, 119-137.

Williams, D. M., & Rhodes, R. E. (2014). The confounded self-efficacy construct: Review, conceptual analysis, and recommendations for future research. Health Psychology Review, 9, 1-16.

Williams, D. M., & Rhodes, R. E. (2016). Reviving the critical distinction between perceived capability and motivation: A response to commentaries. Health Psychology Review, 10, 144-147.

Behavioural Regulation

McEwan, D., Harden, S. M., Zumbo, B. D., Sylvester, B. D., Kaulius, M., Ruissen, G. R., . . . Beauchamp, M. R. (2016). The effectiveness of multi-component goal setting interventions for changing physical activity behaviour: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Health Psychology Review, 10, 67-88.

Michie, S., Abraham, C., Whittington, C., McAteer, J., & Gupta, S. (2009). Effective techniques in healthy eating and physical activity interventions: A meta-regression. Health Psychology, 28, 690-701.

Rhodes, R. E., & Pfaeffli, L. A. (2010). Mediators of physical activity behaviour change among adult non-clinical populations: A review update. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 7, 37.

Rhodes, R. E., Bredin, S. S. D., Janssen, I., Warburton, D. E. R., & Bauman, A. (2017). Physical activity: Health impact, prevalence, correlates and interventions. Psychology and Health, 32(8), 942-975.


Rhodes, R. E., & Rebar, A. (2018). Physical activity habit: Complexities and controversies. In B. Verplanken (Ed.), The Psychology of Habit (pp. 91-109). Cham, Switzerland: Springer.

Lally, P., & Gardner, B. (2011). Promoting habit formation. Health Psychology Review, 1-22.

Rebar, A., Dimmock, J. A., Jackson, B., Rhodes, R. E., Kates, A., Starling, J., & Vandelanotte, C. (2016). A systematic review of the effects of non-conscious regulatory processes in physical activity. Health Psychology Review, 10, 395-407.

Wood, W., & Runger, D. (2016). Psychology of habit. Annual Review of Psychology, 67, 1-11.


Burke, P. J., & Stets, J. E. (2009). Identity Theory. New York: Oxford University Press.

Rhodes, R. E., Kaushal, N., & Quinlan, A. (2016). Is physical activity a part of who I am?  A review and meta-analysis of identity, schema and physical activity Health Psychology Review, 10, 204-225.

Strachan, S. M., & Whaley, D. E. (2013). Identities, schemas, and definitions: how aspects of the self influence exercise behaviour. In P. Ekkekakis (Ed.), Handbook of physical activity and mental health (pp. 212-223). New York: Routledge.