Arts-based methodologies,Victoria Foster

Dr Victoria Foster is Senior External Engagement Fellow at Edge Hill University, a role which involves embedding of external engagement and knowledge exchange into the University’s research activities. Victoria is also Director of the Centre for Social Responsibility (CSR), a cross-faculty research and knowledge exchange initiative at Edge Hill University that is committed to generating opportunities for creative approaches to cross-sector collaboration and co-operation, and modelling and sharing good practice.

Centre for Social Responsibility (CSR)

Victoria has a particular interest in arts-based methodologies underpinned by feminist epistemology and her book, Collaborative Arts-based Research for Social Justice (2016; Routledge) provides a rationale for employing this approach in community settings. She also has an interest in Surrealism, particularly the work of women surrealists who had concerns for the more than human world.

Foster, Victoria (2023) Surreal encounters: Playing with the more than human at a community farm. Qualitative Inquiry. [Online first]


Foster, Victoria (2019) ‘The return of the surreal: Towards a poetic and playful sociology’, Qualitative Sociology Review, 15(1):148-164.

Art Activist Barbie


Art Activist Barbie – Celebrating International Women’s Day 2023

As part of the Good Society lecture series and an International Women’s Day special, Edgehill University has invited an appearance from Art Activist Barbie (AAB). AAB is the brainchild of Dr Sarah Williamson of Huddersfield University. She will explore art activism and ‘good activism’ for social justice and a better world through her innovative and imaginative work which stages Barbie dolls in museums and art galleries. Expect to be educated and entertained by Sarah’s disruptive and subversive activism with a visual feast of photographs and behind the scenes stories.

Gaby Franger Publications

Franger, G. (2023). Else Oppler. Eine außergewöhnliche Künstlerin 1875 – 1965. (Else Oppler. An extraordinary artist). Nürnberg: Frauen in der Einen Welt.


Auer, S, Franger, G. & Niehoff-Hack, A. (Eds) (2022). Plakat Kunst. Poster Art. Nürnberg: Frauen in der Einen Welt.


Bala, E,. Franger, G.& Jakovljević-Šević, T. (2022): Oko Glave, Različiti diskursi marame kao kulturnoc ozhnačitelja. (Around the head. Discourses on the meaning of the headscarf). Novi Sad.


Cyprian, G., Franger, G.& Ghanem, R. (Eds) (2021) Technik#Weiblich#Logisch. Digital. Gendergerecht. Nachhaltig. (Technology#Female#Logical – digital, equitable, sustainable). Nürnberg: Frauen in der Einen Welt.


Clover, D., Franger, G. (2021). Cultures of Headscarves. Feminist Adult Intercultural Education Through a Challenging Exhibition, in: Kathy Sanford, Darlene E. Clover, Nancy Taber, und Sarah Williamson: Feminist Critique and the Museum, Brill | Sense, S. 284-305


Franger, G., Schönweger, A. (2021): Cultures of headscarves: Intercultural Education through a Challenging Feminist Exhibition, in: Clover, D. E., Dzulkifli, S., Gelderman, H., & Sanford, K. Feminist Adult Educators’ Guide to Aesthetic, Creative and Disruptive Strategies in Museums and Community. University of Victoria Gender Justice, Creative Pedagogies and Arts- Based Research Group.


Franger, G. (2019) Dialogue for reconciliation: Exhibition concepts. In Akkent, M.. Kovar, N. Feminist Pedagogy: Museums, Memory Sites and Practices of Remembrance. Istanbul Publication of Istanbul Women’s Museum, p. 244-251.


Franger, G. (Ed.) (2019) Alltag, Erinnerung, Kunst und Aktion. Rückblick nach Vorne. (Daily Life, Memory, Art and Action. Retrospektive Back to the Future). Nürnberg: Frauen in der Einen Welt.


Franger, G. (2019) Artivismus – Kreativer Widerstand. (Artivism – Creative Resistance). In Frieden ist eine Kunst. Kultur, Konflikt und Widerstand. Bund für Soziale Verteidigung e. V. Hintergrund- und Diskussionspapier, No. 65, June, p. 44-52.


Bala, E., Franger, G. (Eds). (2019)  (How feminine is the city? Fürth and its Sister Cities Limoges, Marmaris, Midoun, Paisley, Xylokastro.  Midoun.

Franger, G. (2018) Frida Folk. Chennai: Tara Publisher.


Bala, E., Franger, G. (Eds) (2018). Wie weiblich ist die Stadt? Was Kommunen können und was Frauen leisten. Nürnberg: Frauen in der Einen Welt.


Franger, G. (2017). Discovering Commonalities in Apparent Differences – Changing the Perspective on the Self and the Other. In Akkent, Meral (Ed) Women’s museums: Centre of Social Memory, and Place of Inclusion, Istanbul: Publications of Women’s Museum Istanbul, p. 166-179.


Cyprian, G., Franger, G. (Eds) (2017): ausgekocht? (The end of cooking? boiled out?). Nürnberg: Frauen in der Einen Welt.


Franger, G. (Ed). (2015). Kriegssocken und Peacemakerinnen. (War socks and Peacemakers). Nürnberg: Frauen in der Einen Welt.    



Franger, G. (2014). Arpilleras – arte textile testimonial de mujeres en el Perú entre elaboración del trauma, denuncia y medio de subsistencia. (Arpilleras – women’s testimonial textile art in Peru between trauma elaboration, denunciation and means of subsistence). In Perú: Medios, Memoria y violencia. Lima, p. 157-174.

Franger, G. (2014). Survival-Empowerment – Courage: Insights into the History and Developments of Peruvian Arpilleras. In Marjorie Agosín (Ed): Stitching Resistance. Women, Creativity, and Fiber Arts, Kent, p. 101-118.


Franger, G. (Ed.) (2009). Schicksalsfäden. Geschichten in Stoff von Gewalt, Hoffen und Überleben.(Threads of destiny: Testimonies of violence, hope and survival). Nürnberg: Frauen in der Einen Welt.


Bennewitz, N., Franger.G. (Eds) (2003): Geschichte der Frauen in Mittelfranken. Alltag, Personen und Orte, (History of the women in Middle Franconia. Everyday life, people and places). Cadolzburg: Ars Vivendi.


Bennewitz, N., Franger.G. (Eds) (1999): Am Anfang war Sigena. Ein Nürnberger Frauengeschichtsbuch. (In the Beginning was Sigena. A Nuremberg women’s history book). Cadolzburg: Ars Vivendi.


Franger, G. (Ed).(1998). Verflechtungen- Korbmacherinnen in Zambia und in Oberfranken, (Entanglements – female basket makers in Zambia and Upper Franconia). Nürnberg: Frauen in der Einen Welt.


Franger, G. (Ed) (1995, 1996). The art of survival. Fabric Images of Women’s Daily Lives, Madras und Nürnberg (German, Russian and English).


Franger, G., Pablo, M. (Eds) (1994) Abenteuer Ehe. Heiratsmigrantinnen gestern und heute. (The adventure of marriage. Marriage migrants yesterday and today). Nürnberg: Frauen in der Einen Welt.


Franger, G. (Ed) (1992) „Das hätte ich mir nicht träumen lassen, daß ich mal Indianerwäsche auf meine Wäschelein’ häng.“ Begegnungen– Aymarabäuerin in Franken, der Oberpfalz und Österreich. (“I never dreamed that I would be hanging Indian laundry on my clothes.“ Encounters) Nürnberg: Frauen in der Einen Welt.


Franger, G., Scheub, U. (Eds). (1991).Wir werden nicht schweigen“. Frauengeschichten aus Israel und Palästina. (“We Will Not Be Silent.” Women’s Stories from Israel and Palestine). Nürnberg: Frauen in der Einen Welt.


Franger, G. (1988) Arpilleras, Cuadros que hablan. Vida cotidiana y organización de mujeres, Lima.


Akkent, M., Franger,G. (Eds). (1987). Das Kopftuch, Ein Stückchen Stoff in Geschichte und Gegenwart. (The headscarf, a piece of fabric in the past and present.) Frankfurt: Dağyeli Verlag (German and Turkish).

Changing gendered patterns of power,Canada-Italy Innovation Award 2020 Italy

The project Changing gendered patterns of power through creative dialogic pedagogies of the Canada-Italy Innovation Award 2020 of the Embassy of Canada in Italy funded our Visiting to the University of Victoria (BC), Canada, between November 12th-19th, 2022. The logic of the project was to experiment in Italy with feminist, creative and dialogic pedagogies and bring it to Canada to share and discuss it with a different population. The methodologies that we brought to Canada include:

– Cooperative inquiry through contemporary feminist photography

– Poetic collaborative writing starting from embodied experience of art

– Experiential translation with an educational perspective.

In L’altro sguardo/The other gaze in a class room talk we presented a pedagogical practical theory that celebrates complexity, and triggers deliberate action, starting from the participants’ reflexive writing from photographs taken from the internet. ‘Aesthetics’, or different media and languages, reveal through presentational knowing (Heron, 1996) and abduction (Bateson, 1979) how our perception and our subjectivity are shaped by culture, by our webs of affiliation. They may also offer ways to collectively interrogate what we know, and how we know.

Through a cooperative method of writing-as-inquiry (duoethnography, Sawyer & Norris, 2013) we invited students to a dialogic exploration in pairs and in plenary of feminism in our lives, and share ideas for applying aesthetic methodologies in social research (Leavy, 2015) and adult education for social justice (Clover, Sandford & Butterwick, 2013). The talk was based on the article:

Formenti, L., Luraschi, S., & Del Negro, G. (2019). Relational aesthetics. A duoethnographic research on feminism. European journal for research on the education and learning of adults, 10(2), 123-141.

In this class, the students were all from different migratory backgrounds. Two were men: the English-Canadian lecturer and a Canadian student from Ontario with Swedish origins. To the question “Are you a feminist?”, they replied that their relationship to feminisms (theory and practice) developed thanks to women in their lives. Picking photographs from the internet as well as from personal archives to talk about feminisms allowed new intimate conversations in the classroom which then continued at the pub.

L’altro sguardo/The other gaze. Reflexive writing from women photography in arts-based research. Talk in Tim Hopper’s research class (EPHE 585 (PO1): Qualitative research genres applied to education, health and society – Thursday, November 17th, 16:30 18:00, McKinnon Building, #092

Feminist hack, Cinisello Balsamo, Milan

On 16th January 2018, Darlene Clover, Nancy Taber and Kathy Sanford conducted a feminist museum hack visiting the collection of photographs in the participatory museum of photography near Milan, with a group of high school and university students, teachers, curators and researchers. After presenting the methodology, the participants went to the exhibition:


The series on display, realized over a span of time from the 1960s to the early years of the new millennium, are very different in terms of theme, genre, visual language, technique, format and support. The exhibition features works organized by major themes. The first floor gallery hosts series about the body from social reportage to Body Art along with other series closer to abstraction and various forms of experimentation. The upstairs gallery presents landscape-related projects, understood both in the narrow sense of territory and the broader sense of social environment, which also represent a symbolic space of visual enquiry and linguistic hybridization. (HTTPS://WWW.MUFOCO.ORG/EN/P ERMAN ENT-EXHIBITION-SERIES/)

Each person made comments on a post-it and sticked it on the wall near the artwork. The guiding research questions had to do with whose gaze, who exhibited this way, who is invisible, how would you tell this story. The participants are invited to walk and read all comments and reconvene at the end for a collective conversation about power, feminism, and museums.

Photos with post-it comments:

Hai notato che la prima sala è composta solo da fotografi maschi? Did you notice that the first room shows pictures of only male photographers?


Come ti sentiresti se la donna in questa foto fosse la tua mamma o tua sorella? How would you feel if this in the photo was your mother or sister?



Gender Museum Korea

Gender Museum Korea

Gender Museum Korea was founded on December 17, 2020, in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, as an alternative space to advance women’s and gender culture and history in Korea. It has 12 board members who are active in various fields, including women historians, museum directors, architects, journalists, curators, artists, and more than 100 general members. Although the organization receives funding from several public institutions, including the Seoul National University Social Responsibility (SNUSR), it maintains independent operation and autonomy as its most important principles.

Gender Museum Korea aims to be a creative museum that is not limited by physical space. It conducts various exhibitions and educational programs to foster women’s and gender culture and history in Korea, and at the same time, it aims to realize the global agenda of women in the world and exchange activities with overseas women’s museums. Gender Museum Korea started as a virtual museum and is collecting women’s and gender-related artifacts with the intention of converting to a physical museum in the future.

Gender Museum Korea has been holding pop-up special exhibitions twice a year since its inaugural exhibition, “Women Who Shouted Their Dignity” (December 17, 2020). Korean society is fraught with ideological, generational, and gender conflicts, but these conflicts are also the foundation of the incredible vitality that drives Korean society today. Gender Museum Korea pays particular attention to gender and generational conflicts in the direction of its exhibitions and education, and seeks solutions through cultural and artistic approaches. Gender Museum Korea conducted the Song & Dance Project, titled “Shout Out: 100 women glorified Korean history.”

Through collaborations with feminist artists and educational experiments with students participating in the “From Classroom to Gender Museum” project, it held the following exhibitions: “Sexuality, Love, and Herstory” (July 23~August 10, 2022 at the Museum of Modern and Contemporary History Damda), “Non-binary Collaboration: Young People, Sexuality and Love” (December 28~29, 2022 at the Power Plant 68, SNU), and “Contraception in History” (July 24~31, 2023 at the Garam Lee Byeonggi Hall, SNU). In particular, the “Contraception in History” exhibition attracted a lot of interest from university students and was on tour at the Hanyang University (October 23~November 12, 2023). Several tours are scheduled at universities in the provinces.


 Cord Name: Non-Binary Exhibition


       The Gender Museum in Seoul South Korea curated a pop-up exhibition titled Cord Name: Non-Binary. Young People, Sexuality and Love, at Seoul National University in early 2023. This initiative also included musical performances, dance, performing arts, and seminars over a two-day period. Many people visited the exhibition and took part in the events including the university president, faculty members, museum directors, students, and the general public. The exhibition was also covered on television. 

Kyehyeong Ki



Exhibition: UCA – Retrospective: Creativity past, present and future.

Exhibition: UCA – Retrospective: Creativity past, present and future.

Jan 27th to 15th April 2023


The University for the Creative Arts (UCA), in Rochester, Kent, England, is closing in July 2023. An exhibition was held to acknowledge the work of staff and students, entitled UCA – Retrospective: Creativity past, present and future. Accepted for display at Rochester Arts Centre, 95 High Street, was a found poem, created by Bev Hayward. The text was gifted to her by the women of the Feminist Imaginary Research Group; they met at Edge Hill University in the summer of 2022 and their words and phrases are embroidered on calico with a handstitched border, the design of which is by Theo Harris. It explores imaginative ways, as artists – educators. For further information please contact:


Bev Hayward

Birkbeck College University of London



International Collaborative Feminist Study

This five-year international collaborative feminist study and activist project will bring together, for the first time, women’s, gender and feminist museum, library and heritage site curators, educators and practitioners with feminist adult educators and researchers working in communities and universities. Together, we will explore how our two similar yet distinct groups are conceptualising and operationalising the feminist imaginary as a critical feminist pedagogical contribution to a decolonised gender-just world. Our study is conceptualised using broad understandings and intersectional lenses of gender, women, and sexuality and the impacts heteropatriarchal colonial practices of exclusion, oppression, and misrepresentation have on these populations.

       Bates (2019) argues that despite general beliefs that gender equality has been reached, a 2019 study by the United Nations recognises this form of inequality as an “unfinished business in every single country of the world” (p. 1). The Generation Equality Forum (2021) report takes it further, describing this form of discrimination as not only the most enduring but the most “defining inequality of our time” (n/p). Worldwide, “the powers that be are still predominantly male…the millennia old status hierarchy between men/male and women/female persists everywhere and patriarchal patterns of gender oppression remain more resilient than any of us suspected” (Vintges, 2018, p. 165). In 2011 Wigginsargued that gender inequality “was likely to get worse” (p. 3) and Shameen’s 2021 study shows how. She illuminates a disturbing “global patriarchal backlash [of] rising fundamentalist and fascist agendas” (p. 2). “Forces of extremism, cultural imperialism, ideological colonization…and the (re)imposition of patriarchal heteronormative family values…are shaping the parameters of public discourse and consciousness” (p. 10). Through policy, rights are curbed; through the power of social media, messages of misogyny, intolerance and ‘white’ masculine supremacy invade the homes and lives of millions across the globe (p. 10). In response to feminist “loud acts of refusal and rebellion and quiet acts of resilience” (Ahmed, 2017, p. 3) is a reinvigorated vilification of “feminism as the primary threat to public morality” and calls “to protect family values” (Shameen, 2021, p. 10). While deeply problematic, disparagements of feminism illustrate its perceived power as a disruptive, transformative force which, as Ahmed (2017) argues “gives us the strength to go on”, to resist, to stand up, to speak back and to take the risks needed to create change (p. 3).

Asymmetries of hetero-patriarchal colonial power that maintain, and mobilise gender injustice and oppression are so deeply embedded in all our institutional and organizational structures, social and cultural practices, and interpersonal relationships that it has proven difficult to see a way out (e.g., Ahmed, 2017; Bates, 2018; Criado-Perez (2020), Green, 2017; Ostrouch-Kamińska, 2019; Shameen, 2021). To borrow from feminist Solnit (2014, p. 10), we are faced today with a “failure of the imagination”, a failure to create and educate fully an alternative vision and consciousness of how a decolonised, gender just and healthy world could look, feel, and function. An increasing number of educators and cultural theorists are both using and calling for more feminist imaginative and creative responses aimed to disrupt heteropatriarchal practices of exclusion, oppression, and misrepresentation, and equally importantly, to encourage a sense of hope and possibility for change (e.g., Adler, 2017; Bishop et al, 2019; Butterwick & Roy, 2019; Clover, et al, 2020; Cramer & Witcomb, 2018; Manicom &Walters, 2012; Mullin, 2003). This is because more than any other senses, creativity and the imagination are best able “to help us know each other’s essential humanity [and] to shape who we are and what we can become” (Wyman, 2004, p. 48).

The primary objective of this five-year international collaborative feminist study is to explore and share how forms of the feminist imaginary are being conceptualized and operationalized pedagogically across two similar yet currently distinct feminist aesthetic groups that work in the interests of gender justice and change. The first group is constituted by feminist arts-based adult educators and researchers around the world who teach in universities, facilitate community arts-based workshops and/or use the arts as research tools to help bring change to the lives of women, in particular LGBTQI people and immigrant, refugee, Indigenous and women living in situations of poverty, oppression, and violence. The second group includes women working in women’s and gender museums as well as libraries and heritage sites. Established in 96 countries worldwide, women’s and gender museums work with a diversity of populations, offer non-credit courses and connect with universities, arts-based workshops and activities, and curate exhibitions as “plays of [educational] force” (Benjamin, 2014, p. 10). Feminist and women’s libraries and heritage sites also exist around the world to share women’s stories (exhibitions, novels, domestic and activities lives). Both groups use creative and arts-based strategies to make women’s and gendered lives and experiences visible and to (re)establish them as ‘knowers’, social actors, and creative beings (Adler, 2017; Ahmed, 2015; Carson et al, 2001; Fricker, 2013; Vaqhinas, 2017). Both groups mobilize the imagination, critical consciousness and promote a vision of hope and future possibility. Both groups are grounded in feminism(s) as a political force for change and contend with the complexities of categories such as women, feminism, sexuality, and gender. Despite these commonalities of purpose and practice, these two groups work totally separately and know little or nothing of each other’s work. Although there is a growing number of studies of feminist arts-based adult education, there are almost no studies of women’s museums, libraries and heritage sites and neither do international studies exist that bring these groups together. No studies explore how they encourage the feminist imaginary as a pedagogical force for epistemic justice and change.  We believe that by bringing these two groups together, we can better understand how the feminist imaginary is being envisioned, articulated, educated, and made actionable and that our findings will contribute to gender justice and change worldwide. Our belief is grounded in Metis scholar Anderson’s (2017) call for practices of “radical relationality” (p. 38), the forging of links across diverse theoretical and practical “fields of action that have been separate” (Wiggins, 2011, p. 11). Our belief is also based on Ktunaxa scholar Green’s (2017) assertion that by investigating and working “across different spaces of feminist theorizing and organizing [we can better] address issues ranging from colonialism, racism, sexism….to sexuality and emancipation” (p. 17).

Working collaboratively as an international team of feminist scholars and practitioners, the researchers in this five-year study will investigate how these two feminist groups envision, articulate, and operationalize the feminist imaginary as a process of illumination (visibility and consciousness), representation (storying and imagining) and provocation (resistance and action) around the world. The central questions that guide this study are: What does a new feminist imaginary mean and look like within and across these two diverse yet similar groups? How do they use creativity and imagination to disrupt normative patriarchal and colonial habits of consciousness? What new ways of seeing, knowing, and acting are being made possible?

Specifically, this study aims to:

  1. a) theorise a diverse global understanding of the feminist imaginary and our practices of representation as pedagogical forces of decolonisation, justice and change
  2. b) explore differences and similarities in how these two groups conceptualise and operationalise the feminist imaginary as a consciousness raising, (re)visualising, (re)storying, and re(representational) strategy
  3. c) expand the discourse and practices of feminist arts-based adult education and research with new feminist museological (and library) theories and practices
  4. d) expand the work of women’s, gender and feminist museums, libraries and heritage sites with theories and practices of feminist adult education
  5. e) weave new knowledge about the work of women’s, gender and feminist museums, libraries and heritage sites within the field of adult education
  6. f) understand how these two distinct groups navigate the critical discursive complexities of the categories of women, feminism, and gender in their diverse locations.

       Based in principles of feminist collaborative research, we will use our findings to strengthen the work of feminist adult education practitioners and women’s museums worldwide and share them widely in our classrooms, across feminist and arts-based spaces, and with the public.

       Our primary activities will include:

* Organising international gatherings that will bring participants together to share their work and study findings (first two of these were in August at Edgehill University, Lancaster and October, Birkbeck University, London)

* Presenting findings collectively at academic conferences and meetings of the International Association of Women’s Museums (IAWM)

* Producing zines, graphic reports, academic articles, books, chapters

* Curating exhibitions

       If you would like to get connected with our group, contact Darlene Clover (


Adler, N. (2017). The arts and leadership: Now that we can do anything, what will we do? Academy       of Management Learning & Education, 5(4), 17-24.

Ahmed, S. (2017). Living a feminist life. Duke University Press.

Anderson, S. B. (2017). The stories nations tell: Historical consciousness and the construction of    national identity at the Canadian Museum for Human Rights. (Doctoral dissertation). The       University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC.

Bates, L. (2018). Misogynation. London: Simon and Shuster.

Benjamin, W. (2014). The work of art in the age of its technological reproducibility. In L. Steeds     (Ed.), Exhibition (pp. 26-34). Whitechapel Gallery.

Bishop, K., Etmanski, C. & Page, B. (2019). Engaged scholarship and the arts (Special Edition).

       Engaged Scholarship Journal, 5(2).

Butterwick, S. & Roy C. (2018). Finding voice and listening: The potential of community and arts-based education and research. Special Edition, Canadian Journal for the Study of Adult

       Education. 30(20), 1-3.

Carson F. & C. Pajaczkowska (Eds.) (2001). Feminist visual culture. Routledge.

Cramer, L. & Witcomb, A. (2018). Hidden from view? an analysis of the integration of women’s

       history and women’s voices in Australia’s social history exhibitions. International Journal        of Heritage Studies, DOI: 10.1080/13527258.2018.1475490

Criado Perez, C. (2019). Invisible women: Data bias in a world designed by men. Abrams Press.

Clover, D.E., Dzulkifli, S., Gelderman, H. & Sanford, K. (Eds.) (2020). Feminist adult educators

       guide to aesthetic, creative and disruptive practice in museums and communities.

Fricker, M. (2007). Epistemic injustice: Power and the ethics of knowing. Oxford University Press.

Generation Equality Forum (2021). Accelerating progress for gender equality. Retrieved from

Green, J. (Ed.) (2017). Making space for Indigenous feminism (2nd Edition). Fernwood.

Manicom, L. & Walters, S. (Eds.) (2012). Feminist popular education: Creating pedagogies of

       possibility. Palgrave.

Mullin, A (2003). Feminist art and the political imagination. Hypatia, 18(4), 190-213.

Ostrouch-Kamińska, J. (Ed.) (2018). Gender and adult education. Munster, Germany: Waxmann.

Shameen, N. (2021). Rights at risk: Time for action. AWID Toronto.

Solnit, R. (2014, April 24). Woolf’s darkness: Embracing the inexplicable. The New Yorker.

United Nations (2019). UN75 2020 and beyond: Shaping our future. United Nations.

Vaqhinas, I. (2018). Women’s museums today: their creation, objectives and contribution to     history. ARENAL, 26(1), 275-296.

Vintges, K. (2017). A new dawn for the second sex. Amsterdam University Press.

Wiggins, N. (2011). Critical pedagogy and popular education: Towards a unity of theory and    practice. Studies in the Education of Adults 43(1), 34-43.

Wyman, M. (2004). The defiant imagination. Douglas & MacIntyre.