The majority of primary sources are referenced in footnotes at the bottom of each page. The pictures which do not have a direct citation in their captions are either listed below or have been taken from our Newspaper Database, which includes all articles on the sinking published in the Victoria Times, Semi-Weekly Tribune, and Daily Colonist between 23 October 1918 and 31 December 1919.


Primary Sources

1. Passenger  Letters

2. Passenger and Crew List

3. Telegram Transcripts

    • Maritime Museum Archives. Mr. Reginald Rose Collection. Accession Number 004.003.0006-13.


4. Court Trial Documents

    • Maritime Museum Archives. Mr. Reginald Rose Collection. Accession Number 004.003.0006-13.


5. Newspaper Database – Also see British Colonist Online Edition

6. Maritime Museum Archives – Photographs


7. Royal BC Museum Archives

    • Daniel Leen Collection. Description Number: AAAB3663. Call Number: T3339:0001. Walmis Newman: A Lifetime On The Coast, Part 1.
    • Imbart Orchard Records. Description Number: AAAB1352. Call Number: T1223:0002. Captain Joseph Alphonsus Gardner: Recollections of a Riverboat Man, 1895-1950: Part 2.


Secondary Sources

Booth, Allyson. “Figuring the Absent Corpse: Strategies of Representation in World War I,” Mosaic 26, no.1 (Winter 1993): 69-85.

Coates, Ken and Bill Morrison. The Sinking of the Princess Sophia: Taking the North Down With Her. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1990.

Cook, Tim. “Quill and Canon: Writing the Great War in Canada.” The American Review of Canadian Studies 35, no.3 (Autumn 2005): 503-530.

Jalland, Pat. Death in War and Peace: Loss and Grief in England, 1914 – 1970. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.

Mosse, George L. Fallen Soldiers: Reshaping the Memory of the World Wars. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990.

O’Keefe, Betty and Ian MacDonald. The Final Voyage of the Princess Sophia: Did they all have to die? Surrey: Heritage House Publishing Company, 1998.

Rybak, Stephen. “The Wreck of HMCS Galiano, 1918.”, 2012. Accessed 7 April 2014.

Todman, Dan. The Great War: Myth and Memory. London: Hambledon and London, 2005.

Turner, Robert D. The Pacific Princesses: An Illustrated History of Canadian Pacific Railway’s Princess Fleet on the Northwest Coast. Victoria: Sono Niss Press, 1977.

Vance, Jonathan F. Death So Noble: Memory, Meaning, and the First World War. Vancouver: UBC Press, 1997.


Related Websites

The British Columbia Maritime Museum, located in Victoria BC’s Bastion Square, has an enormous collection of artifacts and archival documents covering the vast majority of West Coast maritime history.

The British Columbia Archives has a wealth of information on all aspects of British Columbia’s history, including the CPR company and the sinking of the Princess Sophia. You can search their archives here.

A City Goes to War covers a multitude of different aspects of life in Victoria during the Great War, and also has over 6000 regiment files of local troops to peruse, including those of the men lost on the Galiano.

The Dictionary of Canadian Biography introduced us to Lulu Mae Eads (née Johnson)

For an in-depth analysis of Victoria’s handling of the infamous 1918 influenza pandemic, see

Horses headed to the Siberian Expedition were lost onboard the Princess Sophia. To find out more about Victoria’s reaction to the Siberian Expedition, click here.

For information on the HMCS Rainbow, another famous Victoria naval ship, click here.



The video of the Sophia’s route on the page “Leaving Skagway” was created by Courtney Reynoldson specifically for this project. The musical accompaniment is the “Cloud Atlas Finale” by Tom Tykwer, Johnny Klimek, and Reinhold Heil, Cloud Atlas Original Motion Picture Soundtrack, WaterTower Music, 2012. The opening video clip was borrowed from this video about divers exploring the Sophia wreck, courtesy of

The Encyclopedia Titanica, online edition had the image used on the Lost Money Scandal page of the empty safe that was found on the Sophia.